Today the Mozilla MathML team released a new version of TeXZilla. You can download a release package or install it with npm. We fixed a few bugs, but there are known issues due to errors in the unicode.xml file of XML Entity Definitions for Characters or inherited from the itex2MML grammar that does not make it ready for version 1.0. The main improvements in this new release are enhancements to the public API and to the command line interface.

Stream filter

TeXZilla can now be used as a stream filter. Each TeX expressions delimited by the classical $ ... $, $$ ... $$, \[ ... \] and \( ... \) will be converted into inline or display MathML. Outside these delimiters, you can use \$ and \\ as escaped characters. We offer three ways to apply that stream filter:

  • From the command line, in a UNIX pipeline:

    cat foo-tex.html | phantomjs TeXZilla.js streamfilter > foo-mathml.html

    echo "This is a **Markdown** document with a *math formula*: $ z = \\sqrt{x^2 + y^2} $" | markdown | nodejs TeXZilla.js streamfilter | sed '1s/^/\n<!-- HTML5 document -->\n/'

    (note: this is not yet supported by slimerjs)

  • Using the TeXZilla.filterString(aString) function, for example TeXZilla.filterString("blah $x^2$ blah") will return the filtered string.

  • Using the TeXZilla.filterElement(aElement) function. This one will browse recursively the descendants of the DOM element aElement and the stream filter will be applied to the text leaves.

By introducting these TeXZilla.filter* function, it becomes tempting to use TeXZilla the same way as MathJax, that is to process all the text nodes in your Web pages and to filter the TeX strings. This is not the intended goal of TeXZilla and it is strongly discouraged: not only the MathML content won't appear in crawlers (e.g. search engines or feed readers) but also browsing all the DOM elements and appending new ones can be very slow for large documents. Instead, it is recommend to filter your static Web page with commonJS TeXZilla.js streamfilter before publishing it or to use a server-side conversion for example using the Web server mode. There are situations where you do not have other choice, though. In that case try to reduce as much as possible the number of elements being processed (see the example in the next section). Of course, if you do not care about performance and MathML availibility outside your web site, you can just use MathJax.

New Safe and Itex-Identifier parsing modes

The most notable difference between TeXZilla and itex2MML is the handling of some expressions like $xy$ or $Func$. By default, TeXZilla interprets this as individual MathML identifiers <mi>x</mi><mi>y</mi> (so that as in LaTeX, they will render in italic) while itex2MML interprets this as a single indentifier <mi>Func</mi>. It is now possible to configure TeXZilla to align with itex2MML's behavior. To do that, use TeXZilla.setItexIdentifierMode or pass the appropriate boolean to the command line. Consecutive non-basic letters (like Greek or Arabic) are still treated as individual tokens. With that change, we hope that TeXZilla could be used to parse all the commands supported by itex2MML into an equivalent output. Together with the command line stream filter, this should allow to recover all the nice itex2MML features.

Similarly, a safe mode is now available and can be enabled with TeXZilla.setSafeMode or by passing the appropriate boolean to the command line. This mode will forbid commands that could be used for XSS injections like \href. With that mode and the new TeXZilla.filterElement function, I'm now able to remove MathJax's use from my blog (users of browsers without good MathML support can still enable it or choose the lighter mathml.css stylesheet). MathJax was a bit overkill for my blog since I'm only parsing visitor comments. To illustrate how the setSafeMode and filterString functions can be used, I now just have to do

// Process TeX fragments in blog comments and comment preview.
window.addEventListener("DOMContentLoaded", function() {
  var toProcess =
    document.querySelectorAll("#comments > dl > dd, #comment-form dd.comment-preview");
  for (var i = 0; i < toProcess.length; i++) {

Inserting equations in a 2D/WebGL canvas

The new function TeXZilla.toImage has been introduced to convert a TeX fragment into a math HTML image with a base64-encoded src attribute. Contrary to other functions of the API, this one needs to do some work to determine the image size and perform the conversion, so it is unlikely to work as expected in a non-browser context. The goal is really only to have a convenient function to generate image of mathematical formulas and insert them into a canvas context to draw 2D or 3D scientific schemas. At the moment, this works well only in Gecko. For instance,

var image =
    TeXZilla.toImage("\\vec{F} = G \\frac{m_1 m_2}{r^2} \\mathbf{u}");
image.onload = function() {
        (canvas.width - image.width) / 2,
        (canvas.height - image.height) / 2);

will insert a mathematical formula in the middle of a 2D canvas. Similarly, you can insert a mathematical formula as a texture in a WebGL canvas. It is recommended to pass aRoundToPowerOfTwo=true to TeXZilla.toImage, so that the image will have dimensions that are power of two. Note that the mathematical formula will be automatically centered in the middle of the generated image. See this example for how to setup the formulas with three.js and make them always oriented in the direction of the camera.

MathML in WebGL

Integration in Mozilla products

  • The CKeditor editor plugin is now integrated in MDN, so you can click on the square root logo square root logo in the editor toolbar to insert mathematical formulas. By the way, the mathml.css is now used for browsers without MathML support. See for example the pages for acosh, atanh or CSS transform.

  • The editor/ in comm-central now integrates a small input box to insert mathematical formulas, accessible from the Insert menu. This will be available in Thunderbird 31 and Seamonkey 2.28, so that you can write mathematics in your emails and in the WYSIWYG editors.

  • Various FirefoxOS Web math apps have been written and use TeXZilla. Raniere is also working on a math keyboard for FirefoxOS as a GSoC project, which will allow to type mathematics faster on mobile devices.